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调亏灌溉对滴灌棉花光合生产的调节补偿效应
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引用本文:范志超,张巨松,石俊毅,田立文,林 涛,郭仁松.调亏灌溉对滴灌棉花光合生产的调节补偿效应[J].西北农业学报,2017,26(10):1461~1469
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2017.10.007
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作者单位
范志超,张巨松,石俊毅,田立文,林 涛,郭仁松 (1.新疆农业大学教育部棉花工程研究中心乌鲁木齐 8300522.新疆农业科学院 经济作物研究所乌鲁木齐 830091) 
基金项目:国家“十二五”科技支撑计划项目(2014BAD11B02);新疆维吾尔自治区“十二五”科技支撑项目(201231102)。
中文摘要:在新疆自然生态条件下,利用膜下滴灌技术,以正常灌溉量(CK)为对照,设正常灌溉量的75%、50%、25% 3个亏缺处理,研究调亏灌溉对棉花光合生产的调节补偿效应,旨在为新疆棉花节水灌溉和高产栽培提供理论依据。结果表明,调亏灌溉改变土层水垂直分布特征,盛蕾期重度调亏有利于棉株地上部与根系的干物质合理分配。灌水带来的补偿效应受到调亏程度和生育时期的双重影响,在盛蕾期、盛花期和吐絮期较显著,而盛铃期则对水分的敏感程度较低。重度调亏显著降低棉叶净光合速率(Pn)、最大光化学效率(Fm/Fv),灌水后无法恢复到对照水平。因此,分析认为盛蕾期可中度调亏;盛花期由于棉花光合处于峰值且灌水带来的光合补偿效应较高,在盛蕾期调亏的基础上,不宜再进行调亏处理;盛铃期由于光合的补偿效应下降,调亏处理有利于缩短棉花生长周期,可进行轻度调亏;吐絮期由于灌水的补偿效应较高,导致棉花贪青晚熟,结合实际生产,宜进行重度调亏。
中文关键词:棉花  土壤含水量  净光合速率  皮棉产量
 
Effect of Soil Water Content on Photosynthetic and Yield of Drip Irrigation in Cotton under Regulated Deficit Irrigation
Abstract:In order to provide theoretical basis for water saving irrigation and high yield cultivation of cotton in Xinjiang,normal irrigation(CK)was taken as control under natural ecological conditions.we used the technology of drip irrigation pipes under plastic film,and set up three treatments of 75%,50%,25% of the normal irrigation amount to study regulation and compensation effects of regulated deficit irrigation on cotton photosynthetic production.The results showed that regulated deficit irrigation changed the vertical distribution characteristics of soil water,the budding stage of severe deficit was in favor of cotton shoots and root dry matter allocation.The compensation effect of irrigation was affected by both degree of regulated deficit and the growth period.At the budding stage,flowering and boll opening stages ,it showed sensitive to water was significantly low at boll stage.Severe water deficit significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate(Pn),maximal photochemical efficiency(Fv/Fm)in cotton leaves after irrigation,which it could not be restored to the control level.Thus,the analysis indicated that the budding stage could moderate the deficit; The photosynthetic compensation effect was higher in the flowering stage due to the peak of cotton photosynthesis.On the basis of adjustment of deficit,it should not be adjusted loss treatment; due to the decrease of photosynthetic compensation effect at boll opening stage,regulated deficit treatment was beneficial to shorten growth period of cotton,which can be slightly adjusted loss;due to the high compensation effect of irrigation at boll stage,it led cotton late maturing,so the actual situation should be considered,suitable measures for regulating deficit severely should be taken.
keywords:Cotton  Soil water content  Net photosynthetic rate  Lint yield
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