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不同种植模式对水稻生长发育和光合特性及产量构成的影响
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引用本文:张向前,徐云姬,武盼盼.不同种植模式对水稻生长发育和光合特性及产量构成的影响[J].西北农业学报,2019,28(8):1232~1241
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2019.08.004
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作者单位
张向前,徐云姬,武盼盼 (1.安徽省农业科学院 作物研究所合肥 2300312.扬州大学 教育部农业与农产品安全国际合作联合实验室江苏扬州 2250093.舒城县农业科学研究所安徽舒城 231300) 
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2017YFD0301305);扬州大学教育部农业与农产品安全国际合作联合实验室开放课题(JRK2018004)。
中文摘要:为水稻机直播增产机理及大面积推广应用提供依据,研究水播和旱播下机直播和撒播对水稻生长、光合及产量形成的影响。结果表明:水播比旱播有利于提高叶面积指数,在旱播和水播下机直播处理叶面积指数在拔节期以后皆显著高于撒播。水播机直播处理组合最有利于提高叶绿素SPAD值,并显著高于旱播撒播处理。其他条件相同,机直播相比撒播、水播相比旱播皆利于提高水稻各生育期群体干物质量。灌浆中期‘桃湘优莉晶’和‘原旱稻3号’水播机直播比水播撒播光合速率、气孔导度、蒸腾速率分别增加了7.06%、5.75%、 4.32%和5.94%、12.68%、4.33%,水播相比旱播光合特性总体表现较优。其他处理相同下,机直播穗数、千粒质量、穗粒数、结实率、产量和收获指数皆高于撒播,‘桃湘优莉晶’和‘原旱稻3号’收获指数旱播和水播下机直播比撒播增加2.58%、8.96%和6.22%、7.37%,而旱播机直播穗数、穗粒数、结实率与水播撒播差异不显著。产量与叶面积指数、群体干物质量、结实率、穗粒数、千粒质量、穗数皆呈显著正相关,与叶绿素SPAD值、光合速率、气孔导度、蒸腾速率呈不显著正相关,与胞间CO2摩尔分数呈负相关。研究认为水播机直播相比水播撒播、旱播撒播及旱播机直播在改善水稻生长、光合及产量方面优势明显。
中文关键词:水稻  种植模式  光合特性  产量构成因子
 
The Effects of Different Planting Patterns on Growth and Development,Photosynthetic Characteristics and Yield Components of Rice
Abstract:In order to explore the yield-increasing mechanism and lay the foundation for large-area popularization and application of mechanical direct seeding,the effects of mechanical direct seeding and broadcast sowing on the growth,photosynthesis and yield formation of rice under paddy field and upland field were studied.The results showed that rice sowed in paddy field enhanced leaf area index compared with rice sowed in upland field,and since jointing stage,mechanical direct seeding had been higher leaf area index than broadcast sowing in both paddy field and upland field.The chlorophyll mass fraction was the highest in the treatment of mechanical direct seeding in paddy field ,and significantly higher than that of the treatment of broadcast sowing in upland field.The dry matter mass of rice population at each growth stage was higher in mechanical direct seeding than broadcast sowing,and similar tendency in paddy field compared to upland field.In paddy field,mechanical direct seeding had higher photosynthetic rate,stomatal conductance,and transpiration rate than broadcast sowing ,increased by 7.06%,5.75% and 4.32% respectively for rice cultivar.‘Taoxiangyoulijing’ and by 5.94%,12.68% and 4.33% respectively for ‘Upland rice No.3’.The rice in paddy field had better photosynthetic characteristics.When the other treatments were the same,caused higher the spike number,1 000-kernel mass,grains per spike,seed setting rate,yield,and harvest index.The treatment of mechanical direct seeding increased the harvest index of ‘Taoxiangyoulijing’ and upland rice three by 2.58%,8.96%and 6.22%,7.37% respectively under paddy field and upland field,and the difference in spike number,grains per spike,seed setting rate between mechanical direct seeding in upland field and broadcast sowing in paddy field were insignificant.Yield was significantly positively correlated with leaf area index,dry matter mass of population,seed setting rate,grains per spike,1 000-kernel mass,spike number,and insignificantly positively correlated with chlorophyll mass fraction,photosynthetic rate,stomatal conductance,transpiration rate,and negatively correlated with intercellular CO2 mole fraction.The research shows that mechanical direct seeding in paddy field in comparison with broadcast sowing in paddy field,broadcast sowing in upland field and mechanical direct seeding in upland field has obvious advantages in improving rice growth,photosynthesis and yield.
keywords:Rice  Planing pattern  Photosynthesis characteristics  Yield components
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