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甘蓝型油菜主要株型和产量性状的综合分析
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引用本文:郭 娜,左凯峰,张 淼,张冰冰,秦梦凡,马 宁,刘 翔,李青青,黄 镇,徐爱遐.甘蓝型油菜主要株型和产量性状的综合分析[J].西北农业学报,2020,30(6):898~906
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作者单位
郭 娜,左凯峰,张 淼,张冰冰,秦梦凡,马 宁,刘 翔,李青青,黄 镇,徐爱遐 (西北农林科技大学 农学院陕西杨凌 712100) 
基金项目:“长江下游及黄淮油菜高产优质适宜机械化新品种培育”(2018YFD0100600);“十三五”国家重点研发计划(2016YFD0101300);陕西省科技统筹创新工程计划(2016KTCQ02-03)。
中文摘要:优化株型、提高产量是当前油菜产业发展的关键。以130份甘蓝型油菜育种亲本为研究材料,对10个株型性状和5个产量性状进行田间考查,通过表型相关分析、通径分析、主成分分析研究油菜株型性状与产量及产量性状之间的关系,明确甘蓝型油菜单株产量形成的主要决定因子。结果表明:130份材料主要株型和产量性状存在丰富的变异, 15个性状变异大小依次为二次分枝数>单株产量>全株角果数> 一次有效分枝高度>顶端分枝角>主花序有效角果数>每角粒数=基部分枝角>一次分枝数>中部分枝角=主花序长度>千粒质量>角果长>角果宽>株高。相关分析表明:15个性状间多数存在显著相关,产量性状中全株角果数与单株产量相关性最大(0.834)。株型性状中株高(0.326)、一次分枝数(0.333)、二次分枝数 (0.382)和角果宽(0.208)与单株产量关系比较密切。通径分析表明:对油菜单株产量正向直接效应最大的产量性状是全株角果数(0.786),对油菜单株产量的正向直接效应最大的株型性状是株高(0.021)和顶端分枝角(0.021)。株高、一次分枝数、二次分枝数、顶端分枝角和基部分枝角通过全株角果数对单株产量的间接效应较大。主成分分析共获得了6个主成分,分别为分枝角度因子、全株角果数因子、株高因子、主花序因子、角果宽因子、角果长因子。主成分综合评价将130份材料划分为4类,其中综合性状优良的有12份材料,对育种家改良油菜株型有一定借鉴意义。
中文关键词:甘蓝型油菜  株型性状  产量性状  相关分析  通径分析  主成分分析
 
Comprehensive Analysis of Major Plant-type and Yield Traits in Brassica napus L.
Abstract:The key bottleneck in rapeseed industryis to urgently optimize plant type and increase yield.In this study,a total of 130 elite B.napus accessions were studied,ten plant-type traits and five yield traits were investigated in the field.The phenotypic correlation analysis,path analysis,and principal component analysis were used to reveal the relationship between the plant type,yield and yield related traits for identifing the main determinant of yield per plant in B.napus.The results showed that abundant variations of plant type and yield traits were in 130 tested accessions,the order of the variation coefficient of the fifteen traits was: number of secondary branches>yield per plant>silique number per plant>first valid branch height>top branch angle>effective number of main inflorescences >number of seeds per silique=basal branch angle>the numbers of valid branch>middle branch angle=main inflorescence length>thousand-seed mass>silique length>silique width>plant height.Correlation analysis showed that significant correlations among the most of the 15 traits,silique number per plant and the yield per plant of yield traits were the highest (0.834).Among plant type traits,plant height (0.326),the numbers of valid branch (0.333),number of secondary branches (0.382),and silique width(0.208) were closely related to the yield per plant.Path analysis showed that silique number per plant (0.786) of yield traits,plant height (0.021) and the top branch angle (0.021) of plant type traits had the most direct positive effect on the yield per plant in rapeseed.Plant height,number of primary branches,number of secondary branches,top branch angle and basal branch angle had significantly indirect effect on yield per plant through the number of pods per plant.A total of six principal components were obtained by principal component analysis,including branch angle,silique number per plant,plant height,main inflorescence,silique width,and silique length factor.The tested accessions were divided into four groups according to the comprehensive evaluation of principal components,of which twelve accessions had good comprehensive properties,this had a certain reference for breeders to improve plant type in B.napus.
keywords:Brassica napus L.  Plant type trait  Yield trait  Correlation analysis  Path analysis  Principal component analysis
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