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生物有机肥部分替代化肥对韭菜生长生理及肥料利用率的影响
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引用本文:何东霞,颉建明,何志学,王 成,牛天航,吕 剑,郁继华.生物有机肥部分替代化肥对韭菜生长生理及肥料利用率的影响[J].西北农业学报,2020,30(6):958~968
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作者单位
何东霞,颉建明,何志学,王 成,牛天航,吕 剑,郁继华 (甘肃农业大学 园艺学院兰州 730070) 
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2016YFD0201005);甘肃省引导科技创新发展专项(2018ZX02);甘肃省瓜菜产业技术体系专项(GARS-GC-1)。
中文摘要:以多层覆盖塑料大棚越冬韭菜为试验材料,不施肥(CK)和常规施肥(CF)作为对照,设化肥减施20% 配施生物有机肥3 000 kg/hm2(T1)、化肥减施20%配施生物有机肥6 000 kg/hm2(T2)、化肥减施30% 配施生物有机肥3 000 kg/hm2(T3)和化肥减施30% 配施生物有机肥6 000 kg/hm2(T4)4个配施处理,探究生物有机肥部分替代化肥对韭菜生长、品质、产量及肥料利用率的影响。结果表明:生物有机肥部分替代化肥较CF处理显著促进韭菜株高及根系活力,同时产量增加7.30%~10.57%,维生素C、可溶性蛋白及可溶性糖的含量分别增加19.67%~39.34%、7.45%~22.98%、12.39%~33.19%,硝酸盐、粗纤维分别降低 14.84%~27.26%、8.7%~18.52%;较CF处理,各配施处理促进韭菜根、茎、叶氮磷钾积累量,氮磷肥利用率分别增加61.30%~141.47%、312.63%~429.82%,且配施处理以T2为最优处理。在同一生物有机肥配施水平下,化肥减施量的增加不利于养分积累和产量的提高;在同一化肥减施水平下,增施生物有机肥可显著促进韭菜生长,同时产量及养分积累随生物有机肥的增施而提高。因此,生物有机肥部分替代化肥能够在提高韭菜产量的同时改善产品品质、增强肥料肥效。
中文关键词:韭菜  化肥  生物有机肥  品质  肥料利用率
 
Effect of Partial Substitution of Chemical Fertilizer with Bio-organic Fertilizer on Growth Physiological and Fertilizer Utilization Efficiency in Chinese Chives
Abstract:The overwintering Chinese chives under multi-layer plastic mulching was used as experimental material, the non- fertilization (CK) and conventional fertilization (CF) as control,four fertilization patters were set as follows:fertilizer reduction by 20%, bio-organic fertilizer 3 000 kg/hm2 (T1); fertilizer reduction of 20%, bio-organic fertilizer 6 000 kg/hm2 (T2); fertilizer reduction 30%, bio-organic fertilizer 3 000 kg/hm2 (T3); fertilizer reduction 30%, bio-organic fertilizer 6 000 kg/hm2 (T4).The effect of partial substitution of chemical fertilizer with bio-organic fertilizer on the growth, quality, yield and fertilizer utilization of Chinese chives were studied. The results showed that compared with CF,the plant height and root activity of Chinese chives under treatment of partial substitution of chemical fertilizer with bio-organic fertilizer were significantly improved, while yield increased by 7.30%-10.57%, the content of vitamin C, soluble protein and soluble sugar increased by 19.67%-39.34%, 7.45%-22.98%, 12.39%-33.19%, respectively. Nitrate and crude fiber content decreased by 14.84%-27.26%, 8.7%-18.52%, respectively. Additionally, the accumulation of N, P and K in roots, stems and leaves of8 Chinese chive significantly increased,and the utilization rate of fertilizer of N and P increased by 61.30%-141.47% and 312.63%-429.82%, respectively, among all treatments,T2 was the optimal treatment. Under the same level of bio-organic fertilizer, the increase of reduced application of chemical fertilizer was not conducive to the accumulation of nutrients and the increase of yield; under the same level of fertilizer reduction,the increase of bio-organic fertilizer could significantly promote the growth chinese chives, and increase yield and nutrient accumulation with the increase of bio-organic fertilizer application. Therefore, the partial substitution of chemical fertilizer with bio-organic fertilizer could improve the yield of leek, product quality and fertilizer efficiency of Chinese chives.
keywords:Chinese chives  Chemical fertilizer  Bio-organic fertilizer  Quality  Fertilizer utilization rate
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