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播种方式和播量对冬小麦‘西农20’产量及品质的影响
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引用本文:祁皓天,董永利,李 川,Angelique Twizerimana,任慧丽,海江波.播种方式和播量对冬小麦‘西农20’产量及品质的影响[J].西北农业学报,2021,(1):32~40
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2021.01.005
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作者单位
祁皓天,董永利,李 川,Angelique Twizerimana,任慧丽,海江波 (西北农林科技大学 农学院 陕西杨凌 712100) 
基金项目:宁夏引黄灌区多熟种植模式关键技术创新与示范项目(2019BBF02007-2)。
中文摘要:为探讨不同播种方式和播量对冬小麦籽粒产量、产量构成、蛋白质含量及其组分含量和加工品质的影响,以优质高产冬小麦‘西农20’为材料,设置3种不同播种方式(常规条播、宽幅播种和露地穴播)和4个不同播量(112.5、150 、187.5、225 kg/hm2)进行试验。结果表明,与条播和穴播相比,宽幅播种能显著提高籽粒产量,增产幅度达6.33%、6.85%,且产量随播量的增加而增大,在225 kg/hm2时达到最大,有效穗数的增加是增产的主要原因。露地穴播与常规条播和宽幅播种相比,蛋白质含量显著提高6.34%、2.83%,且清蛋白、球蛋白、谷蛋白和谷醇比均为露地穴播最大;随着播量的增加,蛋白质各组分含量呈现先增大后减小的趋势,各组分含量和谷醇比在187.5 kg/hm2时达到最大值。露地穴播较条播显著提高湿面筋含量、沉降值和延展性,形成时间和稳定时间各处理间无显著差异,湿面筋含量、沉降值、延展性、形成时间和稳定时间均在112.5 kg/hm2时最大,且显著高于其他播量。综上所述,宽幅播种和提高播量有利于提高籽粒产量,露地穴播有利于蛋白质及其组分含量和加工品质的提升,增加适宜播量能提高蛋白质及其各组分含量,但减小了湿面筋含量、沉降值和延展性,缩短了形成时间和稳定时间,不利于加工品质的提高。
中文关键词:播种方式  播量  产量  蛋白质含量  加工品质
 
Effects of Sowing Methods and Seeding Rates on Yield and Quality of Winter Wheat Variety ‘Xinong 20’
Abstract:In order to explore effects of different sowing methods and seeding rates on grain yield of winter wheat,yield composition,protein content,component content and processing quality,we took quality and high yield wheat variety ‘Xinong 20’as material,three different sowing methods (drill-sowing,wide-row sowing and hole-sowing) and four different seeding rates (112.5 kg/hm2,150 kg/hm2,187.5 kg/hm2,225 kg/hm2) were set in this study.The results showed that compared with drill -sowing and hole-sowing,the wide-row sowing significantly increased the grain yield by 6.33% and 6.85%,respectively,and its yield increased with the increase of the seeding rates,the highest yield was 225 kg/hm2 .The major reason for increase of the yield was caused by increase of available spike numbers per hectare.Compared the hole-sowing with conventional drill-sowing and wide-row sowing,the protein contents significantly increased by 6.34% and 2.83%,respectively and the albumin,globulin,gluten and gluten ratios were the highest under treatment of hole-sowing.With the increase of seeding rate,the contents of protein components showed the trend to increase first,and then decrease,the component content and glutanol ratio reached its maximum of 187.5 kg/hm2.The wet gluten content,sedimentation value and ductility under treatment of hole-sowing in the open field significantly improved compared with treatment of drill-sowing,and there were no significant differences in the time of dough development and dough stability between all treatments; the wet gluten content,sedimentation value and ductility,longest dough development and dough stability time were greatest at 112.5 kg/hm2,which were significantly higher than that of other seeding rates.In summary,increase of seeding rate and wide-row sowing are beneficial to increase yield of wheat grains,hole-sowing is helpful to improve protein and protein component contents and processing qualities.So proper increase of seeding rate can increase protein and protein component contents,but reduce the wet gluten content,sedimentation value and ductility,and also can shorten the dough development time and dough stability time,hence it is not conducive to improve the processing qualities.
keywords:Sowing method  Seeding rate  Yield  Protein  Processing quality
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