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土壤不同硒含量对小麦主要产量相关性状和硒吸收利用的影响
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引用本文:姜宗昊,刘玉秀,张正茂,王文杰.土壤不同硒含量对小麦主要产量相关性状和硒吸收利用的影响[J].西北农业学报,2021,(1):41~49
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2021.01.006
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作者单位
姜宗昊,刘玉秀,张正茂,王文杰 (西北农林科技大学 农学院陕西杨凌 712100) 
基金项目:西安市科技计划项目(20193043YF031NS031);西北农林科技大学试验示范(基地)科技成果推广项目(TGZX2018-35)。
中文摘要:为探究不同土壤硒含量对小麦主要产量相关性状和硒吸收利用的影响,以‘普冰151’‘西农黑大穗’‘周黑麦1号’为试验材料,紫阳高硒矿粉为硒源,采用盆栽试验,设置5种不同土壤硒含量,S0(0添加硒矿粉),S1、S2、S3、S4(土壤硒含量分别为4 mg·kg-1、8 mg·kg-1、12 mg·kg-1和16 mg·kg-1)。结果表明:土壤中施加高硒矿粉对小麦分蘖数和穗长无显著影响;但在土壤硒含量S2和S3水平下‘西农黑大穗’的株高显著提高。土壤硒含量增加可显著提高小麦穗粒数、千粒质量和产量。随土壤硒含量的增加,小麦旗叶叶绿素含量与净光合速率较S0均显著增加,呈先升高后降低的趋势。土壤中施加高硒矿粉显著提高小麦籽粒粗蛋白含量,S2、S3和S4水平之间无显著差异,但显著高于S1水平。在土壤硒含量S1和S2水平下,3个小麦材料籽粒有机硒含量均达到富硒小麦标准(GB13105-1991),S2水平为最适宜种植富硒小麦的土壤硒含量。3个小麦材料的籽粒有机硒含量在S2水平下分别为0.258 mg·kg-1、0.288 mg·kg-1和0.273 mg·kg-1,籽粒硒转化率分别为82.958%、84.457%和 82.979%,‘西农黑大穗’在3个材料中表现最高。表明土壤中施加一定量硒能有效提高小麦产量、籽粒粗蛋白含量和硒含量。
中文关键词:小麦  硒含量  生长发育  硒转化率
 
Effects of Different Selenium Contents in Soil on Main Traits Related to Yield of Wheat and Selenium Absorption
Abstract:In order to explore the effects of different selenium contents in soil on the main traits related to yield of wheat and its selenium absorption and utilization, ‘Pubing 151’‘Xinongheidasui’ and ‘Zhouheimai 1 ’were used as the test materials, and Ziyang high selenium ore powder was used as selenium source,using pot experiment, 5 kinds of soil selenium contents were set, it included S0 (0 added selenium mineral powder), S1, S2, S3, S4 (soil selenium content are 4 mg·kg-1, 8 mg·kg-1, 12 mg·kg-1 and 16 mg·kg-1). The results showed that: mineral soil applied high selenium had no significant effect on the panicle length and the numbers of tillering wheat; but under the soil selenium contents of S2 and S3, the plant height of ‘Xinongheidasui’ increased significantly.Increase of soil selenium content could significantly increase wheat grain numbers of per thousand grain mass and yield.With the increase of soil selenium content, the chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate of wheat flag leaves increased significantly compared with S0,and it showed a trend of first increase and then decrease. The application of high selenium mineral powder in the soil significantly increased the crude protein content of wheat grains. There was no significant difference between S2, S3 and S4 levels, but it was significantly higher than the S1 level.Under the soil selenium contents of S1 and S2 levels, the organic selenium content in the grains of the three wheat materials reached the standard of selenium-enriched wheat (GB13105-1991). At the S2 level, the soil selenium content was the most suitable for selenium-enriched wheat.The contents of organic selenium in the grains of the three wheat materials were 0.258 mg·kg-1, 0.288 mg·kg-1, and 0.273 mg·kg-1 at S2 levels, and the selenium conversion rates were 82.958%, 84.457%, and 82.979%, respectively.‘Xinongheidasui’ performed best among the three materials.In conclusion, applying a certain amount of selenium to the soil can effectively improve wheat yield, crude protein content and selenium content in grains.
keywords:Wheat  Selenium content  Growth and development  Selenium conversion rate
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