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种植密度与施氮对河西灌区青贮玉米产量与品质及水分利用效率的影响
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引用本文:王 佳,李 阳,贾倩民, 常生华,Shahzad Ali,张 程,刘永杰,侯扶江.种植密度与施氮对河西灌区青贮玉米产量与品质及水分利用效率的影响[J].西北农业学报,2021,(1):60~73
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2021.01.008
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作者单位
王 佳,李 阳,贾倩民, 常生华,Shahzad Ali,张 程,刘永杰,侯扶江 (兰州大学 草地农业生态系统国家重点实验室农业农村部草牧业创新重点实验室 草地农业教育部工程研究中心 草地农业科技学院兰州 730020 ) 
基金项目:长江学者和创新团队发展计划资助项目(IRT_17R50);国家自然科学基金(31901389,31672472);兰州大学中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(lzujbky-2019-33);兰州大学“双一流”引导专项-队伍建设-科研启动费(561119204);973国家重点基础研究计划课题(2014CB138706);2018年度甘肃省科技重大专项计划项目(18ZD2FA009)。
中文摘要:为探索河西灌区青贮玉米高产高效的栽培措施,设置67 500 株/hm2(L)、82 500 株/hm2(M)和 97 500 株/hm2(H)3个种植密度及不施氮(N0)、施氮120 kg/hm2(N1)、240 kg/hm2(N2)和360 kg/hm2(N3)4个施氮水平。结果表明:在玉米6叶期和12叶期各施氮处理的株高、茎粗、相对叶绿素含量(SPAD)、叶面积指数(LAI)和地上干物质量(ADM)无显著差异,但在灌浆期和收获期M、H密度下,N2和N3的上述指标显著高于N0,且N1、N2和N3的鲜干草产量显著高于N0。在收获期L的SPAD和茎粗显著高于H,而LAI、ADM和鲜干草产量显著低于M和H。N2和N3较N0显著提高粗蛋白、粗脂肪和粗灰分含量,显著降低淀粉和酸性洗涤纤维(ADF)含量,从而提高相对饲用价值(RFV),且N2和N3的各营养成分产量显著高于N0。随种植密度的增加,粗蛋白、淀粉和粗脂肪含量降低,而中性洗涤纤维(NDF)和ADF增高,致使RFV下降,但M和H的粗蛋白、淀粉和粗灰分的产量显著高于L。N1、N2和N3的水分利用效率(WUE)显著高于N0,M和H的WUE显著高于L,所有处理中MN2的WUE最高。因此,82 500 株/hm2的种植密度结合240 kg/hm2 的施氮量是一种适宜河西灌区青贮玉米生产的栽培措施。
中文关键词:种植密度  施氮  青贮玉米  粗蛋白  水分利用效率
 
Effects of Planting Density and Nitrogen Application on Yield,Quality and Water Use Efficiency of Silage Maize in Hexi Irrigation Region
Abstract:The objective of this experiment is to explore the high-yield and high-efficiency cultivation measures for silage maize in Hexi irrigation region.In this study,three planting densities of 67 500 plant/hm2(L),82 500 plant/hm2(M),97 500 plant/hm2(H) and four nitrogen application levels [0(N0),120(N1),240(N2),360(N3) kg/hm2] were set under each planting density.The experimental results showed that there was no significant difference in plant height,stem diameter,relative chlorophyll content(SPAD),leaf area index(LAI) and aboveground dry matter quality(ADM) under different nitrogen application treatments at 6-leaf stage and 12-leaf stage of maize,but the above indexes under N2 and N3 treatments were significantly higher than those of N0 at M and H densities at grain filling and harvest stages,the fresh and hay yield of N1,N2 and N3 treatments were significantly higher than that of N0 treatment.The SPAD and stem diameter of L were significantly higher than that of H at harvest,while LAI,ADM and fresh hay yield of L were significantly lower than that of M and H treatments.Compared with N0,N2 and N3 treatments significantly increased the content of crude protein,crude fat and crude ash,and significantly reduced the content of starch and acid detergent fiber(ADF),thereby increasing the relative feed value(RFV) and the output of most nutrient component of N2 and N3 treatments were significantly higher than that of N0.With the increase of planting density,the content of crude protein,starch,crude fat and RFV decreased,while the neutral detergent fiber(NDF) and ADF increased,and the yield of crude protein,starch and crude ash of M and H planting density were significantly higher than that of L.The water use efficiency(WUE) of N1,N2 and N3 treatments was significantly higher than that of N0 treatment,the WUE of M and H planting density was significantly higher than that of L,and the WUE of M-N2 planting model was the highest among all treatments.Therefore,a planting density of 82 500 plant/hm2 in combination of 240 kg/hm2 nitrogen is a suitable cultivation measure for silage maize production in Hexi irrigation region.
keywords:Planting density  Nitrogen application  Silage maize  Crude protein  Water use efficiency
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