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种植模式对机采棉生长及棉田水分利用效率的影响
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引用本文:姜 艳,王 鹏,徐 飞,刘东洋.种植模式对机采棉生长及棉田水分利用效率的影响[J].西北农业学报,2021,(1):93~101
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2021.01.011
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作者单位
姜 艳,王 鹏,徐 飞,刘东洋 (1.石河子大学 农学院农业资源与环境系新疆石河子 8320002. 新疆农垦科学院 作物研究所新疆石河子 8320003. 新疆生产建设兵团果业有限公司乌鲁木齐 830001) 
基金项目:石河子大学高层次人才启动项目(RCZX201425);国家自然科学基金(31660135)。
中文摘要:为探讨当前新疆机采棉不同种植模式对棉花生长发育、产量及农田水分利用效率的影响,在新疆石河子市于2017年、2018年棉花生长季,设置4种机采棉种植模式,包括一膜三行(76 cm+76 cm+76 cm)、一膜四行(64 cm+12 cm)、一膜四行(66 cm+10 cm)和一膜六行(66 cm+10 cm)(分别标记为F376、F4(64+12)、F4(66+10)和F6(66+10)),分析评价不同种植模式对棉花株高、叶面积指数、干物质积累量、籽棉产量以及水分利用效率(WUE)的影响。研究结果表明:低密度F376种植模式下最有利于棉花株高、干物质积累量和叶面积指数的提高,从而提高棉花产量;而高密度F6(66+10)种植模式下棉花各项生长指标最不利于产量提高;F4(66+10)和F4(64+12)适中;其中F4(66+10)模式籽棉产量大于F4(64+12)模式。WUE表现为F376最大,F6(66+10)最小,F4(64+12)和F4(66+10)模式下WUE差异不显著。因此,认为F376种植模式最有利于提高棉花产量和WUE,在其种植模式下棉花群体抗旱性最强,F4种植模式下的两种株行距配置F4(64+12)和F4(66+10)也有一定抗旱性;而F6(66+10)模式不利于产量提高,也不利于增强其抗旱性。该研究可为北疆机采棉节水灌溉下实施有效的种植模式提供理论依据。
中文关键词:机采棉  种植模式  水分  籽棉产量  形态指标
 
Effects of Planting Modes on Machine-picked Cotton Growth and Water Use Efficiency
Abstract:To explore the effects of different planting modes on cotton development,yield and water use efficiency in the field, four planting modes including three rows covered with one film (76 cm+76 cm+76 cm) ,four rows (64 cm+12 cm) three rows covered with one film ,four rows covered with one film (66 cm+10 cm) and six rows covered with one film (66 cm+10 cm) (denoted by F376,F4(64+12),F4(66+10)and F6(66+10) respectively) were set in growth season of Shihezi during years of 2017 and 2018 . The effects of different planting modes on plant height,leaf area index (LAI),dry mass accumulation ,yield components and water use efficiency(WUE) were analysed.The results showed that the low density F376 mode contributed to highest plant height,dry mass accumulation,LAI and yield among all planting modes; while,the high density F6(66+10) mode obtained lowest plant height,dry mass accumulation,LAI and yield; F4(66+10) and F4(64+12) modes had moderate effect on cotton growth and yield,and the seed cotton yield of F4(66+10) model was greater than that of the F4(64+12) mode. F376 had the highest WUE,while it was the minimum in F6(66+10); the difference of WUE between F4(64+12)and F4(66+10) was not significant. Considering the water shortage in the Northern Xinjiang,F376 was suggested to be optimal mode for higher cotton production and WUE. Besides,the cotton population had the strongest drought resistance under F376 mode,followed by F4(66+10) and F4(64+12) modes. While F6(66+10) had neither good production,nor better drought resistance.The study can provide valuable data for improving management of machine-picked cotton in Northern Xinjiang.
keywords:Machine-picked cotton  Planting mode  Water  Seed cotton yield  Morphological index
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