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有机肥替代部分化肥对温室土壤肥力和真菌群落的短期影响
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引用本文:杨 涵,靳芙蓉,关统伟,徐红星,胡小朋,谢 强.有机肥替代部分化肥对温室土壤肥力和真菌群落的短期影响[J].西北农业学报,2021,(3):422~430
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2021.03.011
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作者单位
杨 涵,靳芙蓉,关统伟,徐红星,胡小朋,谢 强 (1.西华大学 食品与生物工程学院成都 6100392.西宁市农业技术推广服务中心西宁 8100083.成都复兴农源生物科技有限公司成都 610039) 
基金项目:四川省科技厅项目(2018NZ0110)。
中文摘要:为探讨有机肥替代部分化肥在短期内对土壤肥力和真菌群落特征的影响,以青藏高原温室土壤为研究对象,设置3种施肥处理:常规施加化肥1 500 kg/hm(XN001)、50%常规化肥量+有机肥45 000 kg/hm(XN002)和30%常规化肥量+有机肥60 000 kg/hm(XN003),采用常规分析和Illumina MiSeq高通量测序技术研究不同处理2 a后土壤养分含量和真菌群落结构的变化。结果表明:与常规施化肥(对照组XN001)相比,有机肥替代部分化肥(处理组XN002和XN003)提高了土壤有机质、全氮、速效磷、速效钾含量以及真菌群落丰富度,降低了土壤pH和真菌群落多样性。在门水平上检测出的13个已知真菌门中,子囊菌门(Ascomycota)和担子菌门(Basidiomycota)为土壤中的主要真菌门,平均相对丰度分别为47.87%和4.81%,且XN003处理的土壤中子囊菌门和担子菌门的相对丰度分别比对照组XN001提高7.81%和12.35%。在属水平上,增施有机肥后土壤的真菌群落结构相比对照组也存在差异,其中XN003处理的土壤中有益真菌被孢霉属(Mortierella)的相对丰度增加1.86%,镰刀菌属(Fusarium)这类病原真菌的相对丰度降低3.87%。Pearson相关性分析显示,土壤真菌丰富度指数(Chao1和ACE)与pH呈负相关,与有机质、全氮、速效磷和速效钾含量呈正相关,其中速效磷含量也是影响土壤真菌多样性的重要环境因子。因此,与常规施加化肥相比,有机肥替代部分化肥能在短期内有效提高土壤肥力,优化土壤真菌群落结构,增加土壤有益真菌丰度,减少土壤病原真菌丰度,是一种应用前景良好的施肥制度。
中文关键词:有机肥  化肥  温室土壤  土壤肥力  真菌群落
 
Short-term Effect of Partial Substitution of Inorganic Fertilizer with Organic Fertilizer on Soil Fertility and Fungal Communities in Greenhouse
Abstract:In order to explore short-term effect of partial substitution of inorganic fertilizer with organic fertilizer on soil fertility and fungal community characteristic,with soil in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau as research object,three fertilization treatments were set,which include conventional chemical fertilizer of 1 500 kg/hm,(XN001CK); combination of 50% chemical fertilizer with organic fertilizer of 45 000 kg/hm(XN002),and 30% chemical fertilizer with organic fertilizer of 60 000 kg/hm(XN003).The changes of soil nutrient content and fungal community structure under different treatments after two years were studied by use of conventional analysis method and Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing technique.Compared with XN001 treatment,the treatment of substitution of chemical fertilizer with organic fertilizer(XN002 and XN003)significantly increased the contents of organic matter,total nitrogen,available phosphorus and available potassium and abundance of fungus communities in soil,but significantly decreased the soil pH.For 13 known fungal phyla in soil,Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were identified as the dominant fungal communities with an average relative abundance,accounting for 47.87% and 4.81%,respectively.Besides,the relative abundance of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota in soil under treatment of XN003 were 7.81% and 12.35% respectively higher than that under treatment of XN001.At the genus level,the fungal community structure in soil was differentwith control treatment after organic fertilizer was increasinglyapplied,of which the relative abundance of beneficial fungi Mortierella increased by 1.86% and the Fusarium associated with crop diseases decreased by 3.87% under the XN003 treatment.The Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that fungal richness indexes,including the Chao1 and ACE,were negatively correlated with pH and positively correlated with organic matter,total nitrogen,available phosphorus,and available potassium in soil.Among them,the content of available phosphorus played a major role in determining variation of fungal diversity in soil.In conclusion,the partial substitution of inorganic fertilizer with organic fertilizer can be used to effectively enrich the soil fertility,optimize the soil fungal community structure,increase the proportion of soil beneficial fungi and decrease the relative abundance of soil pathogenic fungi in the short-term.
keywords:Organic fertilizer  Inorganic fertilizer  Soil in greenhouse  Soil fertility  Fungal communities
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