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播种密度与播种方式对小麦不同穗位结实特性及产量的影响
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引用本文:梁翠丽,田向东,海江波,乔佳秀,罗 洁,米璐璐.播种密度与播种方式对小麦不同穗位结实特性及产量的影响[J].西北农业学报,2021,30(6):796~806
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2021.06.002
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作者单位
梁翠丽,田向东,海江波,乔佳秀,罗 洁,米璐璐 (1.西北农林科技大学 农学院陕西杨凌 7121002陕西省咸阳市淳化县农业技术推广中心陕西咸阳 711200) 
基金项目:陕西省2021年度创新能力支撑计划(2021XYSF-12)。
中文摘要:为探讨不同播种密度与播种方式对小麦穗部结实特性及产量的影响,以播种密度为主区,设4个水平:D1(112.5 kg/hm)、D2(150 kg/hm)、D3(187.5 kg/hm)、D4(225 kg/hm);播种方式为副区,设置为宽幅播(K)、条播(T)、穴播(X)。结果表明:小麦群体总茎数随播种密度的增加而增加,苗期为:X>K>T,返青期和收获期为:T>X>K。不同穗位结实小穗数、小穗结实率、小花数均在高播种密度(D3、D4)下达到最大值。X和K在高密度下更有利于改善小穗和小花结实特性,尤其是对下部穗位效果更显著。随播种密度的增加,产量、穗粒数和千粒质量均呈先减后增趋势,X的产量和穗粒数表现均优于K和T,产量在D4X组合达到最大值(10 062.83 kg/hm),说明穴播配合高播种密度(D3、D4)可在增产的同时使产量构成因素更加协调。穗部结实特性对小麦产量有着重要影响,上部穗位结实特性指标与产量及其构成要素基本呈负相关,下部穗位结实特性指标与产量及其构成要素基本呈正相关。因此,适当提高播种密度时,配合穴播或宽幅播,对增产和改善不同穗位结实特性具有积极作用。
中文关键词:播种方式  播种密度  穗位  结实特性  产量
 
Effects of Seeding Rate and Sowing Mode on Fruiting Characters and Yield of Different Spikelet Positions in Wheat
Abstract:To explore the effects of different seeding rates and sowing modes on spikelet fruiting characters and yield, the seeding rate was the main area and 4 levels were set: D1(112.5 kg·hm-2), D2(150 kg·hm-2) , D3(187.5 kg·hm-2), D4(225 kg·hm-2); the sowing mode was the sub-area, and it was set as wide precise sowing(K), drill sowing(T), and dibbling sowing(X). The results showed that the total number of stems of wheat population increased with the increase of the seeding rate. It was X>K>T at the seedling stage, and T>X>K was in both the rejuvenation period and the harvest period. The number of spikelets, spikelet setting rate, and the number of florets in different spikelets positions reached the maximum under the condition of high seeding rate(D3, D4). X and K were more conducive to improving the fruiting characteristics at different spikelet and floret positions under high seeding rate condition, especially at lower spikelet position.With the increase of seeding rate, the yield, grain number per spike and 1 000-grain mass showed a trend of decrease at first and then trend of increase. The performance of X yield and grain number per spike was better than that of K and T, and the yield reached the maximum under the combination of D4X(10 062.83 kg·hm-2), which indicated that X combined with high seeding rate could increase yield, while yield components were more coordinated. The spikelet setting characteristics had an important influence on the yield of wheat. The setting property index of upper spikelet position was negatively correlated with yield and yield components, while the setting property index of the lower spikelet position was positively correlated with yield and yield components. Therefore, when the seeding rate is properly increased, the combination of dibbling sowing or wide precise sowing has a positive effect on yield-increasing and improvement of the fruiting characters at different spikelet positions.
keywords:Sowing mode  Seeding rate  Spikelet position  Fruiting character  Yield
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