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小麦玉米间作和氮肥对作物耗水特性及水分利用的影响
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引用本文:李倩倩,王星运,李孟浩,陈小莉,任小龙,赵西宁.小麦玉米间作和氮肥对作物耗水特性及水分利用的影响[J].西北农业学报,2021,30(6):819~828
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2021.06.004
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作者单位
李倩倩,王星运,李孟浩,陈小莉,任小龙,赵西宁 (1.西北农林科技大学 农学院陕西杨凌 7121002.农业部西北黄土高原作物生理生态与耕作重点实验室西北农林科技大学陕西杨凌 7121003.西北农林科技大学 水土保持研究所陕西杨凌 712100) 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31871562)。
中文摘要:通过大田试验,在半湿润区雨养条件下研究小麦玉米间作种植与单作种植在两个氮肥水平下的阶段耗水量、土面蒸发特征及水分利用效率,探究间作系统中各组成作物的耗水特性以及氮肥对水分利用的调节作用。研究结果表明,间作种植模式可增加小麦耗水量、全生育期土面蒸发量与土面蒸发量占耗水量的比例(E/ET),而降低玉米耗水量。在同一种植模式下,施氮处理增加作物耗水量,同时降低全生育期土面蒸发量与土面蒸发量占耗水量的比例,说明施氮能适当地增加土壤水分的有效性。与单作相比,间作使小麦在施氮时产量、水分利用效率分别提高33.20%与12.15%,在不施氮时较单作小麦产量、水分利用效率分别提高26.97%与23.81%;玉米间作与单作种植对产量的差异不显著,但显著提高水分利用效率,在施氮时和不施氮情况下分别提高8.37%和10.06%。在同一种植模式下,施氮处理同时增加小麦和玉米的产量与水分利用效率。因此,可在半湿润区适当发展施氮处理的间作种植模式,以提高作物的水分利用效率和达到作物高产。
中文关键词:间作  耗水  土面蒸发  水分利用效率
 
Effects of Wheat/Maize Strip Intercropping and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Crops Water Consumption and Water Use
Abstract:A field experiment was conducted under two nitrogen application rates to study the water consumption,soil evaporation characteristics and water use efficiency of wheat-maize strip intercropping and sole-cropping wheat and maize in the semi humid areas.The main purpose of this study is to promote the practice of strip intercropping in semi humid areas,and to explore the water consumption characteristics of crops in the intercropping system and the effect of elevated nitrogen application rates on the water use.The results showed that the intercropping increased the water consumption of wheat,soil evaporation and E/ET during the whole growth period,but decreased the water consumption of maize. Under the same cropping system,the application of nitrogen increased crop water consumption,and decreased the soil evaporation and E/ET during the entire growth period,which indicated that the application of nitrogen could appropriately increase soil water consumption. Compared with sole cropping,strip intercropping under nitrogen application increased wheat yield and water use efficiency by 33.20% and 12.15%,respectively,and wheat yield and water use efficiency increased by 26.97% and 23.81% respectively compared with sole cropping; intercropped maize and sole cropping had no significant difference inyield,but significantly increased WUE by 8.37% and 10.06% under nitrogen and non-nitrogen application,respectively.Under the same planting pattern,nitrogen application increased the yield and water use efficiency of wheat and maize at the same time. Therefore,the strip intercropping with nitrogen application can be used in semi humid areas to improve water use efficiency and achieve high yield.
keywords:Intercropping  Water consumption  Soil evaporation  Water use efficiency
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