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猕猴桃新优系'黑金'和'金福'的生物学特性
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引用本文:何 昕,刘 航,田爱林,刘艳飞,刘占德.猕猴桃新优系'黑金'和'金福'的生物学特性[J].西北农业学报,2021,(12):1835~1843
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2021.12.009
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作者单位
何 昕,刘 航,田爱林,刘艳飞,刘占德 (西北农林科技大学 园艺学院陕西杨凌 712100) 
基金项目:陕西省现代猕猴桃产业技术体系项目(K3370219026)。
中文摘要:采用田间生物学调查和实验室分析测定相结合的方法,于2019-2020年对猕猴桃新优系'黑金'和'金福'在主产区秦岭北麓的生物学特性进行观测研究,以期为其在秦岭北麓地区的栽培适应性及制定合理栽培管理措施提供参考依据。研究以美味猕猴桃'海沃德''徐香'和'哑特',中华猕猴桃'农大金猕'和软枣猕猴桃'紫果'作为对照,结果表明:秦岭北麓地区,'黑金'萌芽期在3月中旬,盛花期4月下旬,果实成熟期9月中旬,为中华系早熟品种;'金福'萌芽期在3月下旬,盛花期5月上旬,果实成熟期10月下旬,为美味系晚熟品种。'黑金'和'金福'均以单花为主,二歧聚伞花序。'黑金'以短果枝结果为主(平均为58.49%),平均坐果率较高(88.05%);'金福'以长果枝结果为主(66.89%),平均坐果率最高,达99.75%。'黑金'果实圆柱形,果形指数1.25,平均单果质量93.12 g,果肉金黄色,果实软熟时可溶性固形物含量为16.76%,可滴定酸为 0.17%,干物质为19.95%;'金福'果实近圆柱形,果形指数1.77,平均单果质量为96.96 g,果肉翠绿色,软熟时可溶性固形物含量为15.61%,可滴定酸为0.11%,干物质为18.99%。'黑金'和'金福'生物学性状稳定,具有较高的发展前景。
中文关键词:猕猴桃  新优系  秦岭北麓  生物学特性
 
Biological Characteristics of New Excellent Kiwifruit Lines 'Heijin' and 'Jinfu'
Abstract:The main biological characteristics of 'Heijin'and 'Jinfu' were observed by field observation and laboratory testing. This study may provide references for adaptive exploration and management of 'Heijin' and 'Jinfu' in the northslope of Qinling Mountains.Taking Actinidia chinensis cv.Jinmi,Actinidia deliciosa cv.'Hayward','Xuxiang' and'Yate,'Actinidia arguta var. purpurea as controls,the results showed that the germination period, flowering period,fruit-ripening period of 'Heijin' were in mid-March,early May and mid-September, respectively,it was an early-maturing line in north slope of Qinling Mountains.The germination period, flowering period,fruit-ripening period of 'Jinfu' were late March,early May and late October, respectively,and it was a late-maturing line.Both of 'Heijin' and 'Jinfu' had unisexual and typical dichasium.The fruiting branches of 'Heijin' were short fruit branch,accounting for 58.49%,and fruit-setting rate was higer (88.05%).Long fruit branch and highest fruit-setting rate of 'Jinfu' accounted for 66.89% and 99.75%,respectively.Fruit of 'Heijin' was cylindrical,fruit shape index was 1.25,the average fruit quality was 93.12 g,color of flesh was gold yellow;the average soluble solids content,titratable acid and dry matter content were 16.76%, 0.17% and 19.95%, respectively.For 'Jinfu', its fruit was subcylindrical,fruit shape index and the average fruit quality were 1.77 and 96.96 g,respectively; the average soluble solids content,titratable acid and dry matter content were 15.61%,0.11% and 18.99%,respectively.The biological characteristics of 'Heijin' and 'Jinfu' are genetically stable and have high development prospect.
keywords:Kiwifruit  New excellent lines  North slope of Qinling Mountains  Biological characteristics
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