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滴灌水肥一体化下施氮量和追氮时期对夏玉米籽粒品质及淀粉糊化特性的影响
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引用本文:刘 帅,徐学欣,孟繁港,徐宇凡,郝天佳,贾 靖,张玉璐,赵长星.滴灌水肥一体化下施氮量和追氮时期对夏玉米籽粒品质及淀粉糊化特性的影响[J].西北农业学报,2024,(3):426~534
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2024.03.006
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作者单位
刘 帅,徐学欣,孟繁港,徐宇凡,郝天佳,贾 靖,张玉璐,赵长星 (青岛农业大学 农学院山东省旱作农业技术重点实验室山东青岛 266109) 
基金项目:山东省重大科技创新工程(2019JZZY010716);山东省新旧动能转换重大产业攻关(2021-54);国家重点研发计划(2018YFD0300604)。
中文摘要:为探究黄淮海平原东部地区滴灌水肥一体化条件下,不同施氮量及追氮时期组合对夏玉米籽粒品质、淀粉糊化特性和产量的影响,选用玉米主推品种‘郑单958’为试验材料,设置施氮量180 kg/hm(N1)和 210 kg/hm(N2)两个氮肥处理水平及拔节期+大喇叭口期(W1)、拔节期+开花期(W2)、拔节期+大喇叭口期+开花期(W3)3个不同追肥时期组合。结果表明:拔节期+大喇叭口期+开花期追肥处理(N1W3、N2W3)籽粒淀粉含量、粗蛋白含量、可溶性糖含量和产量显著高于其他处理,籽粒粗脂肪含量显著低于其他处理。相关性分析表明:籽粒支链淀粉含量与峰值黏度、谷值黏度、崩解值、最终黏度、回复值、粗蛋白含量、可溶性糖含量呈显著正相关,与糊化温度、峰值时间、粗脂肪含量呈显著负相关。增加追氮频次改善籽粒直链淀粉与支链淀粉的比例和淀粉的糊化特性,提高了籽粒品质。N1W3与N2W3相比,籽粒品质与淀粉糊化特性差异不显著,但是N1W3处理减少氮肥的投入,节约投入成本,为本试验的推荐处理。
中文关键词:滴灌水肥一体化  夏玉米  施氮量  追氮时期  籽粒  品质  糊化特性  产量
 
Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization Application and Topdressing Period on Grain Quality and Starch Pasting Properties of Summer Maize under Drip Irrigation
Abstract:The effects of nitrogen fertilization application and topdressing period on grain quality and starch pasting properties of summer maize under drip irrigation were investigated.Variations in maize grain quality and pasting properties arise from differences in amino acid supply,protein synthesis capacity,and starch content resulting from different fertilization methods.In this study,multiple combination of nitrogen fertilization application and topdressing period were applied to explore the its effects on grain quality,starch pasting properties and yield of summer maize under drip irrigation with water-and-fertilizer integration in the eastern part of Huanghuaihai plain.An elite maize hybrid ‘Zhengdan 958’ was treated with two nitrogen levels of 180 kg/hm (N1) and 210 kg/hm (N2) at three combinations of different topdressing periods,namely,jointing stage + belling stage (W1),jointing stage + flowering stage (W2),jointing stage + belling stage + flowering stage (W3).The results showed that the kernel starch content,crude protein content,soluble sugar content and grain yield of the topdressing treatments (N1W3,N2W3) were significantly higher than those of other treatments,while the crude fat content of the grain was significantly lower than that of the other treatments.Correlation analysis showed that amylopectin content was positively correlated with peak viscosity,trough viscosity,breakdown,final viscosity,setback,crude protein content and soluble sugar content,but negatively correlated with pasting temperature,peak time and crude fat content.The ratio of amylose to amylopectin and pasting properties of starch were improved by increasing the frequency of nitrogen chasing,and grain quality was improved sequentially.Furthermore,N1W3 is recommended due to the lower cost with the reduction of nitrogen fertilizer application and comparable significant impacts on grain quality and starch gelatinization with N2W3.
keywords:Water and fertilizer integration under drip irrigation  Summer corn  Nitrogen fertilization application  Topdressing period  Grain  Quality  Pasting properties  Yield
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