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减氮下不同肥料配施对麦玉复种体系作物氮素积累分配及产量的影响
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引用本文:普布仓决,王金平,姚丽茹,朱员正,贺峥峥,韩 娟.减氮下不同肥料配施对麦玉复种体系作物氮素积累分配及产量的影响[J].西北农业学报,2024,(5):820~833
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2024.05.005
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作者单位
普布仓决,王金平,姚丽茹,朱员正,贺峥峥,韩 娟 (西北农林科技大学 农学院陕西杨凌 712100) 
基金项目:陕西省重点研发计划重点项目(2018ZDXM-NY-002)。
中文摘要:为探索陕西关中地区冬小麦-夏玉米复种体系氮肥减量增效潜力,构建适宜的作物养分管理体系,于2018-2019年采用田间试验研究了减氮并配施不同肥料对麦玉复种体系作物生长状况、植株氮素积累分配、作物产量以氮素利用效率的影响。试验设置5个处理:常规施氮(225 kg·hm-2,N100);减氮20%(180 kg·hm-2 ,N80);减氮配施生物炭(180 kg·hm-2,生物炭22 500 kg·hm-2,N80+BC);减氮配施缓释肥(180 kg·hm-2,尿素∶缓释肥=1∶1,N80+S);减氮配施微生物菌肥(180 kg·hm-2,微生物菌肥3 600 kg·hm-2 ,N80+BF)。结果表明:减氮及其配施不同肥料对夏玉米大喇叭口期后株高、干物质和氮素积累没有显著影响;而N80+BF促进了夏玉米氮素向籽粒中的分配;N80+BC提高了夏玉米产量和收获指数,且较N80处理分别显著提高8.3%和20.1%;减氮下三种配施处理均能提高夏玉米氮农学利用率和氮肥偏生产力,且以N80+BC处理表现最佳,较N100分别显著提高43.3%和29.0%,较N80分别显著提高45.8%和8.3% ;N80+BC和N80+BF还能显著提高夏玉米氮肥表观表观回收率,二者较N100显著增加18.1%和10.7% ,较N80处理显著增加26.9%和19.0%。与N80相比,N80+BF有效提高了冬小麦扬花期和成熟期分蘖数、茎蘖成穗率以及成熟期干物质和氮素积累量,并能显著提高冬小麦穗数和产量,增幅分别为13.7%和16.2%。减氮下3种配施处理均能提高冬小麦氮农学利用率、氮肥偏生产力和氮素利用率,其中氮农学利用率和氮肥偏生产力在N80+BF处理表现最佳,较N100分别显著提高了31.2%和28.4%,较N80分别显著提高了33.7%和16.2%,氮素利用率在N80+S处理表现最佳。综上所述,减氮及其配施处理中,180 kg·hm-2配施生物炭(22 500 kg·hm-2)和180 kg·hm-2配施微生物菌肥(3 600 kg·hm-2)更有利于作物生长,促进氮素积累与分配,提高作物产量和氮素利用效率,实现关中地区麦玉复种体系氮肥管理的“减量增效”。
中文关键词:夏玉米-冬小麦  氮肥减量  肥料配施  产量  氮素利用率
 
Effects of Different Fertilizers on Nitrogen Accumulation and Distribution and Yield of Wheat-maize Multiple
Abstract:To explore the potential for reducing nitrogen fertilizer and improving efficiency in winter wheat-summer maize multiple cropping system in Guanzhong area of Shaanxi Province, and to establish a suitable crop nutrient management system, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of nitrogen reduction combined with different fertilizers on crop growth, plant nitrogen accumulation and distribution, crop yield and nitrogen use efficiency in wheat-maize multiple cropping system from 2018 to 2019. Five treatments were set as follows ∶ conventional nitrogen application (225 kg·hm-2, N100); nitrogen reduction 20% (180 kg·hm-2, N80); nitrogen reduction combined with biochar(180 kg·hm-2, biochar 22 500 kg·hm-2,N80 +BC); nitrogen reduction combined with slow-release fertilizer(180 kg·hm-2, urea slow-release fertilizer = 1∶1, N80 +S); nitrogen reduction combined with microbial fertilizer(180 kg·hm-2, microbial fertilizer 3 600 kg·hm-2,N80 + BF).The results showed that nitrogen reduction and its combination with different fertilizers had no significant effect on plant height, dry matter and nitrogen accumulation of summer maize after large bell stage. The application of N80 +BF promoted the distribution of nitrogen in summer maize towards grain development, while N80 +BC increased the yield and harvest index of summer maize by 8.3% and 20.1%, respectively. Under nitrogen reductions, all three combined treatments increased Nitrogen Agronomic Efficiency (NAE) and Nitrogen Fertilizer Productivity (NFP) of summer maize. N80 +BC treatment exhibited the best performance,showing an significant increase of 43.3% and 29.0% compared to N100, and a significant increase of 45.8% and 8.3% compared to N80, in terms of NAE and NFP, respectively. Both N80 +BC and N80 +BF significantly increased Recovery Efficiency (RE) of summer maize, with a significant increase of 18.1% and 10.7% compared to N100, and a significant increase of 26.9% and 19.0% compared with N80. Compared to N80, N80 +BF effectively increased the tiller number, tiller spike rate, dry matter and nitrogen accumulation during flowering and maturity stages, and significantly increased the spike number and yield of winter wheat by 13.7% and 16.2% , respectively. The NAE, NFP and NUE of winter wheat were improved by the three treatments under nitrogen reduction. Among them, NAE and NFP N80 +BF treatment performed best, with a remarkable increase of 31.2% and 28.4%,respectively,compared with N100, and these parameters increased by 33.7% and 16.2% when compared to the N80 treatment. NuE performed best in N80 +S treatment. In summary, in the treatment of nitrogen reduction and its combined application, 180 kg·hm-2 combined with biochar(22 500 kg·hm-2) and 180 kg·hm-2 combined with microbial fertilizer (3 600 kg·hm-2) are more conducive to crop growth, promote nitrogen accumulation and distribution, improve crop yield and nitrogen utilization rate, and realize the‘ reduction and efficiency’ of nitrogen management in wheat-maize multiple cropping system in Guanzhong area.
keywords:Summer maize and winter wheat  Nitrogen fertilizer reduction  Fertilizer application  Yield  Nitrogen use efficiency
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