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中华猕猴桃异倍体花粉对‘哑特’种子发育及果实品质的影响
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引用本文:柴雅楠,洪蔚金,王 健,刘艳飞,刘占德.中华猕猴桃异倍体花粉对‘哑特’种子发育及果实品质的影响[J].西北农业学报,2024,(5):862~871
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2024.05.009
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作者单位
柴雅楠,洪蔚金,王 健,刘艳飞,刘占德 (西北农林科技大学 园艺学院陕西杨凌 712100) 
基金项目:国家柑橘产业技术体系猕猴桃西安综合试验站项目(CARS-26)。
中文摘要:为了研究不同倍性猕猴桃花粉对‘哑特’种子及果实品质的影响,选择4个中华猕猴桃花粉对‘哑特’进行授粉试验,以2个美味猕猴桃六倍体花粉为对照。统计各授粉组合的坐果率,观察种子发育结构,测定采收后果实中黑色种子占比、种子千粒质量、单果质量、果实纵横径、可溶性固形物、可滴定酸及风味相关品质指标,利用主成分分析方法对不同花粉授粉后的果实品质进行综合评价。结果表明:中华(M1-M4)和美味系(M5-M6)不同倍性猕猴桃花粉授粉后,坐果率均在93%以上,与四倍体和六倍体花粉相比,二倍体花粉M1和M2对‘哑特’授粉后黑色种子占比(9.14%和9.37%)、千粒质量(0.13 g和0.14 g)、果实单果质量(95.78 g 和86.10 g)显著降低,种子明显败育,但果实感官评价更优。干物质、可溶性固形物、可滴定酸和果皮挥发性物质的含量在不同花粉处理间具有差异,但与花粉倍性无明显相关性。综上,两个二倍体花粉(M1、M2)对‘哑特’授粉的少籽效果最佳,果实品质表现优良,为后期少籽‘哑特’的商业化生产提供了理论依据和资源选择。
中文关键词:猕猴桃  不同倍性  花粉直感  少籽哑特  果实品质
 
Effects of Alloploid Pollen from Chinese Kiwifruit on Seed Development and Fruit Quality of ‘Yate’
Abstract:The effect of pollen from various ploidy kiwifruits on seed and fruit quality of the ‘Yate’ variety was assessed in this paper.For the pollination test with ‘Yate’, we selected four chinensis kiwifruit pollens and two deliciosa hexaploid pollens,with two deliciosa kiwifruit hexaploid pollen as controls.Fruit-setting rates and seed development processes were observed.After harvest,various fruit characteristics,including the percentage of black seeds,1 000-seed mass ,fruit mass ,fruit-shape index,soluble solids,titratable acid,and flavor-related quality indexes,were asseessed.The principal component analysis method was used to evaluate the quality of fruits pollinated with different types of pollen.The results showed that the fruit-setting rate was greater than 93% throughout all pollination treatments for both chinensis(M1-M4) and deliciosa(M5-M6) with different ploidy pollens.The diploid M1 and M2 pollen had a significantly lower number of black seeds(9.14% and 9.37%),a significantly lower mass per 1 000 seeds(0.13 g and 0.14 g),and a significantly smaller fruit(95.78 g and 86.10 g) compared to the tetraploid and hexaploid pollen,and seeds were significantly aborted after pollination.However,the sensory evaluation of the fruits was better.Dry matter,soluble solids,titratable acids,and pericarp volatiles altered between pollination treatments,these changes were not substantially associated to pollen ploidy.In conclusion,the two diploid males(M1,M2) that pollinated ‘Yate’ show the best seedless effect and excellent fruit quality performance,providing a theoretical basis and resource selection for eventual commercial production of seedless ‘Yate’.
keywords:Kiwifruit  Different ploidy  Xenia  Few-seed Yate  Fruit quality
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