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银州柴胡茎叶的发育解剖学研究
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引用本文:周亚福,韩桂军,蔺泽涛,赵思瑶,刘之蕊,刘予涵,李 勃.银州柴胡茎叶的发育解剖学研究[J].西北农业学报,2024,(5):903~909
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2024.05.013
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作者单位
周亚福,韩桂军,蔺泽涛,赵思瑶,刘之蕊,刘予涵,李 勃 (1.陕西省西安植物园(陕西省植物研究所)/陕西省植物资源保护与利用工程技术研究中心西安 7100612.西安市第八十三中学西安 7100433.陕西省生物农业研究所西安 710043) 
基金项目:陕西省科学院青年联合创新项目(2020K-13);陕西省重点研发计划项目(2022NY-152,2022NY-142);陕西省科学院中学生科学探究计划项目。
中文摘要:以伞形科柴胡属植物银州柴胡(Bupleurum yinchowense)为研究对象,采用石蜡切片结合组织透明法对银州柴胡茎和叶的结构发育进行研究,以期为柴胡属植物的分类和鉴定提供科学依据。结果显示,银州柴胡茎的发育可分为原分生组织、初生分生组织、初生生长以及次生生长4个阶段,茎尖顶端分生组织分为原套和原体;茎的初生分生组织包括原表皮、基本分生组织和原形成层,原表皮发育为表皮,基本分生组织发育为皮层、髓射线和髓,原形成层发育为维管束(由初生韧皮部、形成层和初生木质部组成);茎的初生结构包括表皮、皮层和维管柱,维管柱包括维管束、髓射线和髓;银州柴胡茎有微弱的次生生长,髓射线位置细胞的细胞壁常明显加厚。叶的发育分为原分生组织、初生分生组织和初生生长3个阶段;叶为异面叶,上下表皮由一层细胞组成,有气孔分布,为无规则型;栅栏组织由1层细胞组成,海绵组织由6~8层细胞组成;叶脉维管束为外韧维管束,其上下方均未观察到纤维分布;茎棱角的皮层、初生韧皮部、髓周围以及叶脉韧皮部均分布有分泌道;叶脉维管束木质部上方的组织中,分泌道有或无;银州柴胡茎和叶分泌道均为裂生型。结果表明,银州柴胡茎和叶的结构特点明显,有别于其他柴胡属植物,可为柴胡属药用植物的分类和鉴定提供科学依据。
中文关键词:银州柴胡      发育解剖学  分类鉴定
 
Developmental Anatomy of Stems and Leaves of Bupleurum yinchowense
Abstract:In this paper, paraffin sectioning and organization transparency method were used for developmental anatomy on the stem and leaf of Bupleurum yinchowense.The objective is to provide scientific foundation for the classification and identification of plants in Bupleurum L. The results showed that the stem development of B. yinchowense was divided into four stages:primary meristem, primary meristem, primary growth and secondary growth, while the apical meristem of stem tip was divided into corpus and tunica, which constitutes the original meristem of stem.The primary meristem developed into the epidermis, cortex, pith, and vascular cylinder of the stem, composed of protoepidermis, ground meristem, and protocambium.The primary structure of stem consisted of epidermis, cortex, vascular cylinder (vascular bundle, pith and pith ray). The stems of B. yinchowense showed weak secondary growth, forming secondary phloem and secondary xylem. And the cell walls at the pith ray position was significantly thickened during secondary growth. Developmental process of leaf consisted of primary meristem, primary meristem and primary growth. The upper and lower epidermis of the leaves were composed of a layer of cells, both of which were identified by irregular stomata distribution. Leaf was bifacial, and the palisade tissue was composed of 1 layer cells, and the spongy tissue was composed of 6-8 layers cells. The vascular bundle of the leaf was a collateral vascular bundle, and no fiber was observed above or below the vascular bundle of the leaf vein. The secretory canals were distributed in the cortex, primary phloem, around the pith of the stem and in the phloem of the vein, and often observed in the tissues above the xylem of leaf vein. The secretory canals in stems and leaves of B. yinzhouense were schizogenous. The structure of B. yinchowense stem and leaf is different from others in Bupleurum L, thus providing a scientific basis for the identification of medicinal plants within this genus.
keywords:Bupleurum yinchowense  Stem  Leaf  Development anatomy  Classification and identification
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