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不同灌溉模式对小麦冬前幼苗生长及生理特性和产量的影响
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引用本文:王坤坤,李中蔚,李昕悦,刘慧莲,黄敬尧,宋有洪,李金才,李金鹏.不同灌溉模式对小麦冬前幼苗生长及生理特性和产量的影响[J].西北农业学报,2024,(7):1215~1224
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2024.07.004
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作者单位
王坤坤,李中蔚,李昕悦,刘慧莲,黄敬尧,宋有洪,李金才,李金鹏 (安徽农业大学 农学院合肥 230036) 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(32001474);安徽农业大学引进与稳定人才项目(yj2019-01);安徽省小麦产业技术体系“十四五”计划项目。
中文摘要:为探明不同灌溉模式对淮北地区小麦冬前幼苗生长及生理特性和产量的影响,以‘烟农19’为供试材料,设置不灌溉(W0)、播后灌溉60 mm(W1)、播种后和分蘖期每次微喷30 mm(W2)共3种灌溉模式,研究不同处理对苗期土壤水分含量变化、幼苗农艺性状、叶片生理特性、籽粒产量及产量构成的影响。结果表明,与W0和W1相比,W2维持了小麦三叶期、六叶期和越冬期土壤0~20 cm适宜的水分含量。W1和W2较W0处理促进三叶期和六叶期幼苗的生长;越冬期幼苗的分蘖数、株高、叶龄、初生根和次生根数目均表现为W2显著高于W1,二者显著高于W0。不同时期幼苗的茎+鞘、叶干质量为W2>W1>W0。W2不同生育时期群体叶面积指数显著高于W1,W0最低;六叶期W1与W2的叶片叶绿素含量无显著差异,二者显著高于W0,越冬期为W2>W1>W0。W0不同时期叶片超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化氢酶、过氧化物酶活性和丙二醛含量显著高于W1,除六叶期W1与W2的过氧化氢酶活性无显著差异外,各时期的超氧化物歧化酶和过氧化物酶活性均为W2最低。成熟期小麦籽粒产量和产量构成要素均表现为W2>W1>W0。综上,播后和分蘖期利用微喷灌可以维持苗期适宜的土壤水分含量,促进幼苗生长发育,提高幼苗抗逆能力,进而有利于形成壮苗并增加产量。
中文关键词:小麦  微喷灌  幼苗生长  生理特性  干物质  产量
 
Effects of Different Irrigation Patterns on Growth, Physiological Characteristics and Yield of Wheat Seedlings before Over-wintering
Abstract:In order to explore the effects of different irrigation patterns on the growth and physiological characteristics of winter wheat seedling before over-wintering in Huaibei Palin, ‘Yannong 19’ was used as experimental material, three irrigation patterns were set up, which included no irrigation (W0), irrigation with 60 mm after sowing (W1), micro-sprinkling irrigation with 30 mm after sowing and tillering stage (W2), the effects of different treatments on soil moisture content change, seedling agronomic characters, leaf physiological characteristics and grain yield and yield components of wheat seedling were investigated.The results showed that, compared with W0 and W1, W2 maintained the suitable soil water content at three-leaf, six-leaf and over-wintering stages of wheat seedling in the soil depth of 0-20 cm .Compared with W0, W1 and W2 promoted the growth of seedling at three-leaf and six-leaf stages, and W2 significantly improved the number of tillers, plant height, leaf age of leaves, the number of primary root and secondary root of wheat seedling at over-wintering stage compared with W1 and W0, and W1 was significantly higher than W0.Dry mass of stem and sheath and leaf were presented as W2>W1>W0.Leaf area index in W2 was significantly higher than that of W1 at different growth stages, W0 was the lowest.There was no significant difference in chlorophyll content of leaf between W1 and W2 at six-leaf stage, and they were significantly higher than that of W0.However, the chlorophyll content among different treatments showed as W2>W1>W0 at over-wintering stage.The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and malondialdehyde in leaf of W0 at different stages were significantly higher than those of W1.Besides there was no significantly difference in CAT activity between W1 and W2 at six-leaf stage, the activities of SOD and POD were the lowest in W2.The grain yield and yield components were presented as W2>W1>W0.In conclusion, irrigation with micro-sprinkling after sowing and at tillering stage can maintain the suitable soil water content at seedling stage of wheat, promote the seedling growth and development, improve seedling stress tolerance, help form strong seedling and increase yield in Huaibei Plain.
keywords:Wheat  Micro-sprinkling irrigation  Seedling growth  Physiological characteristics  Dry matter  Yield
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