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不同灌水定额下缓释氮肥与尿素混掺对玉米生长和产量及水肥利用效率的影响
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引用本文:陈梦茹,邢英英,张帆,邵雅婷,付锦涛,张香竹,王秀康.不同灌水定额下缓释氮肥与尿素混掺对玉米生长和产量及水肥利用效率的影响[J].西北农业学报,2024,(7):1235~1248
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2024.07.006
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作者单位
陈梦茹,邢英英,张帆,邵雅婷,付锦涛,张香竹,王秀康 (延安大学 生命科学学院陕西延安 716000) 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(52169014,42107379 );延安大学研究生教育创新计划项目(YCX2023077);延安大学大学生创新计划项目(D2022004)。陈梦茹,邢英英,张 帆,邵雅婷,付锦涛,张香竹,王秀康
中文摘要:为旱区建立玉米种植的高效水肥管理技术提供理论依据。通过玉米盆栽试验,设置3个灌水定额(W1:2 548 m/hm2,W2:1 911 m/hm2,W3:1 433 m/hm2)和3个氮肥类型(U:尿素,UNS:尿素与缓释氮肥以纯氮含量比3∶7混掺,SRF:缓释氮肥),以不施氮肥W3灌溉量为对照(CK),研究不同灌水量和氮肥类型对玉米生长指标、产量及构成、灌溉水分利用效率(IWUE)及氮素利用效率(NUE)的影响。结果表明,氮肥类型与灌溉量及两者交互作用对玉米生长指标、单株干物质累积量、产量及产量构成要素、IWUE和NUE有显著影响(P<0.05)。不同氮肥类型处理下,W1水平下的平均玉米株高、叶面积、叶绿素含量、净光合速率、单株干物质累积量、产量及产量构成和NUE均显著高于W2和W3。同一氮肥类型在不同的灌溉量下对玉米生长的响应有所差异。W1灌溉水平下,SRF的平均产量较UNS和U分别提高2.01%和12.71%,但在W2和W3灌溉水平下,产量的整体趋势表现为UNS>SRF>U。处理W3UNS的IWUE最高,处理W1UNS的NUE最高。通过整体差异组合评价模型分析得出排名前两名的处理为W1SRF和W1UNS。综合分析,灌溉量2 548 m/hm2的前提下,缓释氮肥或缓释氮肥与尿素混掺一次性基施,可同时兼顾玉米生长、产量和水肥利用效率。
中文关键词:玉米  尿素  缓释氮肥  水肥利用效率  产量  整体差异组合评价模型
 
Effects of Slow-release Nitrogen Fertilizer and Urea Blending on Maize Growth, Yield and Water-fertilizer Use Efficiency under Different Irrigation Levels
Abstract:To provide a theoretical basis for the efficient water and fertilizer management technology of maize cultivation in arid regions,maize pot experiments were conducted.Three irrigation quotas (W1: 2 548 m3/hm2,W2:1 911 m3/hm2,W3:1 433 m3/hm2) and three nitrogen fertilizer types (U:urea,UNS:urea mixed with slow-release nitrogen fertilizer in a nitrogen content ratio of 3∶7,SRF:slow-release nitrogen fertilizer) were set,the irrigation amount without nitrogen fertilizer application (W3) was used as the control (CK).The effects of different irrigation amounts and nitrogen fertilizer types on maize growth index,yield and composition,irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) were investigated.The results showed significant effects of nitrogen fertilizer types,irrigation levels,and their interaction on maize growth index,dry matter accumulation per plant,yield and yield components,IWUE and NUE (P<0.05).The average maize plant height,leaf area,chlorophyll content,net photosynthetic rate,dry matter accumulation per plant,yield and yield components and NUE of W1 treatment were significantly higher than those of W2 and W3 treatments under different N fertilizer treatments.The response of the same nitrogen fertilizer type to maize growth differed under different irrigation levels.Under W1 irrigation level,the yield of SRF was 2.01% and 12.71% higher than those of UNS and U,respectively.However,under W2 and W3 irrigation levels,the overall trend of yield was showed as UNS>SRF>U.The IWUE of W3UNS treatment and the NUE of W1UNS treatment were the highest.Based on the overall difference combination evaluation model,the top two treatments were W1SRF and W1UNS.When the irrigation amount is 2 548 m/hm2,and slow-release nitrogen fertilizer or a blend of slow-release nitrogen fertilizer and urea was applied once as base fertilizer,maize growth,yield and water and fertilizer utilization efficiency can be taken into account simultaneously.
keywords:Maize  Urea  Slow-release nitrogen fertilizer  Water-fertilizer use efficiency  Yield  Overall difference combination evaluation mode盐胁迫下AMF和生物质炭耦合系统对玉米籽粒产量和生理生态的调控作用
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