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不同栽培方式番茄氮素吸收量及理论施氮量
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引用本文:邓小芳,程于真,杨明霞,陈竹君,周建斌.不同栽培方式番茄氮素吸收量及理论施氮量[J].西北农业学报,2024,(7):1299~1317
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2024.07.012
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作者单位
邓小芳,程于真,杨明霞,陈竹君,周建斌 (西北农林科技大学 资源环境学院/农业农村部西北植物营养与农业环境重点实验室陕西杨凌 712100) 
基金项目:山东省重点研发计划(2023TZXD028);国家重点研发计划(2017YFD0200106)。
中文摘要:研究不同栽培方式及茬口下番茄产量、地上部氮素吸收量和生产1 000 kg果实需氮量的差异,根据目标产量给出田块尺度理论氮素推荐量,为不同栽培条件下番茄氮肥的合理施肥提供理论依据与技术指导。收集国内外有关番茄氮素利用的文献43篇,统计分析露地、设施冬春茬和设施秋冬茬栽培条件下番茄的产量、地上部氮素携出量和形成1 000 kg果实需氮量;根据不同产量水平,计算1 000 kg番茄果实需氮量的变化;用理论施氮量的方法计算不同目标产量下番茄的理论施氮量。分析表明,露地、设施冬春茬和设施秋冬茬番茄的产量、地上部氮素携出量和形成1 000 kg果实需氮量存在明显差异。设施冬春茬番茄的产量最高为98.5 t/hm2n=159),是露地和设施秋冬茬番茄产量的1.3倍。设施冬春茬地上部氮素携出量为239.3 kg/hm2n=126),高于露地和设施秋冬茬。与产量和地上部氮素携出量不同,设施秋冬茬形成1 000 kg番茄果实的需氮量最高,为2.75 kg(n=99),设施冬春茬和露地相接近,分别为2.43 kg(n=126)和2.44 kg (n=123)。番茄产量和地上部氮素携出量之间有显著的线性相关性,番茄产量随地上部氮素携出量的增加而显著增加。番茄产量和地上部氮素携出量受水肥投入影响,灌溉量对番茄产量的影响极显著,随灌溉量增加产量先缓慢上升后下降,但灌溉量对番茄地上部无显著影响。番茄产量水平在<55、55~85、85~115、 115~145、>145 t/hm2时,生产1 000 kg果实的需氮量分别为3.17、2.38、2.27、2.25和2.25 kg。番茄形成1 000 kg果实的需氮量随着产量水平的增加反而呈现降低的趋势。理论施氮量的计算简单易推广。番茄目标产量在50~150 t/hm2时,露地、设施冬春茬和设施秋冬茬番茄的理论施氮量范围分别在182~547、183~549和206~619 kg/hm2,露地番茄和设施冬春茬番茄的理论推荐施氮量相近。不同栽培形式和岔口对番茄产量和氮素吸收特性均会产生影响。
中文关键词:番茄  产量  地上部氮素携出量  理论施氮量
 
Nitrogen Uptake and Theoretical Nitrogen Application Rate of Tomato under Different Cultivation Conditions
Abstract:This study investigated variations in tomato yield,aboveground nitrogen (N) uptake,and N requirement for producing 1 000 kg of fruit under different cultivation methods and stubble.Furthermore,this study aimed to provide theoretical N recommendations at the field scale, guided by the target yield.The results of this study will contribute to the development of a theoretical framework,and provide technical recommendations for the optimal fertilization of tomatoes under diverse cultivation conditions.A comprehensive review of 43 domestic and international literature sources on N utilization was conducted.The compiled data covered various cultivation scenarios,including open-field culture,greenhouse cultivation during the winter-spring,and autumn-winter seasons.A statistical analysis was performed to assess tomato plant yield,aboveground N uptake,and nitrogen requirements for 1 000 kg of tomato fruit.The change in the N requirement for 1 000 kg of tomato fruit at different yield levels was calculated.The theoretical N rate method was used to calculate the theoretical N application rate for tomatoes under different target yields.The highest yield of tomato in greenhouse cultivation during winter-spring reached 98.5 t/hm(n=159),which was 1.3 times higher than that in open field and greenhouse cultivation during autumn-winter.The aboveground nitrogen uptake of the winter-spring stubble was 239.3 kg/hm2 (n=126),which was higher than that of the open-field and the autumn-winter stubble.The highest N requirement for producing 1 000 kg of tomato fruit was 2.75 kg in greenhouse cultivation during autumn-winter.The winter-spring stubble of the greenhouse cultivation were close to that of open field,with requirement of 2.43 kg and 2.44 kg,respectively,both of which were lower than the autumn-winter stubble of the greenhouse cultivation.Aboveground N uptake increased significantly with increasing tomato yields,and a significant linear relationship was observed between them.The application of water and fertilizer affected tomato yield and aboveground N uptake.The study found a strong relationship between irrigation volume and tomato yield.As the quantity of irrigation increased,tomato yield first showed a gradual increase,followed by a decline.However,the amount of irrigation did not significantly affect the aboveground nitrogen uptake.The N requirement for 1 000 kg of tomato fruit decreased with the increase of yield level,being 3.17,2.38, 2.27, 2.25 and 2.25 kg for tomato yields <55,55-85,85-115,115-145,>145 t/hm2,respectively.The calculation of the theoretical N application was easily generalized.For target tomato yield between 50-150 t/hm2,the theoretical N application rates for open field tomato,greenhouse cultivation during winter-spring tomato,and greenhouse cultivation during autumn-winter tomatoes ranged from 182-547, 183-549 to 206-619 kg/hm2,respectively.The theoretical recommended N application rates for open field tomatoes and greenhouse cultivation during winter-spring tomatoes were found to be similar.The yield and N uptake characteristics of tomatoes were affected by different cultivation forms and planting seasons.Considering the target yield of tomato and the N requirement for 1 000 kg of fruit under different cultivation,it becomes possible to calculate the nitrogen content necessary for producing 1 000 kg of fruit.This calculation helps determine the appropriate nitrogen fertilizer application rate for tomatoes under different cultivation conditions,thereby offering valuable guidance for optimizing nitrogen fertilizer utilization in tomato cultivation.
keywords:Tomato  Yield  Aboveground N uptake  Theoretical nitrogen rate
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