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两种果树害虫发生动态与生物源农药防治技术研究
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引用本文:刘雪莹,王 欣,高其琴,吴江波,侯 伟,张伯虎,邹佩华,侯 猛,袁 涛,李怡萍.两种果树害虫发生动态与生物源农药防治技术研究[J].西北农业学报,2021,30(6):929~938
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2021.06.016
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刘雪莹,王 欣,高其琴,吴江波,侯 伟,张伯虎,邹佩华,侯 猛,袁 涛,李怡萍 (1. 西北农林科技大学农业部西北黄土高原作物有害生物综合治理重点实验室陕西杨凌 7121002. 乾县农业科技中心陕西乾县 7133003. 旬阳市农业综合执法大队陕西旬阳 7257004. 宜川县农业科技中心陕西宜川 7162005. 宝鸡市农业技术推广服务中心陕西宝鸡 721001 6.渭南市农业科学研究院陕西渭南 714000) 
基金项目:陕西省科技重大专项(2020ZDZX03-03-02);陕西省重点研发计划(2017ZDCXL-NY-03-02);杨凌示范区科技计划(2017NY-06);国家重点研发计划(2017YFD0201900)。
中文摘要:苹果黄蚜(Aphis citricola van der Goot)和金纹细蛾(Lithocolletis ringoniella Matsumura)是危害较严重的两种果树害虫,且化学防治导致“3R”问题日益突出。为探索安全有效的生物源农药绿色防治技术,通过田间调查和防治试验,在陕西省白水县和乾县苹果园进行两种害虫动态监测及生物源药剂筛选。结果表明:苹果黄蚜1 a中的大发生时期在5-6月,百梢虫量最高达1 552头,建议药剂防治的最佳时期为5月上中旬。金纹细蛾幼虫发生高峰期分别为7月上旬、8月下旬和11月中旬,百叶虫斑数最高达17个。金纹细蛾成虫1 a发生4代,分别为4月下旬、6月中下旬、7月下旬至8月上旬和9月下旬,第3代危害最严重,单个诱捕器诱虫量最高达1 344头。4月下旬是金纹细蛾越冬代成虫羽化的盛期,是应用性诱剂诱杀防治的关键时期;而6月中下旬是进行药剂防治的最佳时期。生物源农药22.4%螺虫乙酯悬浮剂对苹果黄蚜的防治效果较好,药后7 d防效仍在80%以上,1.8%阿维菌素微乳剂、0.3%印楝素乳油、6%鱼藤酮乳油也有较好防效。0.3%印楝素乳油对金纹细蛾持效性长,药后15 d防效仍达81.25%,1.8%阿维菌素乳油和2.2%甲维·氟铃脲乳油药后15 d防效也在70%以上。
中文关键词:苹果黄蚜  金纹细蛾  发生动态  生物源农药  药剂筛选
 
Occurrence Dynamics and Biogenic Pesticide Control Technology of Two Pests in Apple Orchards
Abstract:Aphis citricola van der Goot and Lithocolletis ringoniella Matsumura are very serious pests in apple orchards,the 3R problem caused by chemical control is becoming more and more prominent. In order to explore the safe and effective green control technology of biogenic pesticides,the dynamic monitoring and biogenic pesticides screening for the two pests were carried out in apple orchards in countries of Baishui and Qianxian in Shaanxi province through field investigation and control experiments. The results showed that the highest occurrence period of Aphis citricola in every year was May and June,and the number of insects per 100 shoots peaked at 1 552 heads every week. It was suggested that the best control period for Aphis citricola was early and mid-May. There were three peak periods of Lithocolletis ringoniella larval occurrence:early July,late August and mid-November respectively,with a maximum per 17 insect spots of 100 leaves every week. There were four peak periods for adult occurrence:late April,mid-late June,late July to early August,and late September respectively,among which the period from late July to early August was the period of highest occurrence for the whole year when a single trap could trap up to 1 345 heads per week. Late April was the peak period of the adult overwintering generation,which was the key period for prevention and control with sex attractant. And the peak period of mid to late June was the best period for pesticide control for the whole year. The results of the pesticide screening test showed that 22.4% spirotetramat SC had better control efficacy on Aphis citricola,with a control efficacy above 80% after 7 days of spraying. In addition,1.8% avermectin ME,0.3% azadirachtin EC and 6% rotenone EC also showed good control efficacy. After 15 days,0.3% azadirachtin EC had the best efficacy on Lithocolletis ringoniella,with a control efficacy of 81.25%; the control efficacy of 1.8% avermectin EC and 2.2% emamectin benzoate·hexaflumuron EC were both above 70%. The results provide some theoretical basises and practical guidance value for clarifying the optimal control periods and scientific use of biogenic pesticides based on the occurrence dynamics of the two pests in the apple orchards.
keywords:Aphis citricola van der Goot  Lithocolletis ringoniella Matsumura  Occurrence dynamic  Biogenic pesticides  Pesticide screening
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